Dyslexia is a learning disorder with very varied symptoms: confusion of letters and syllables, difficulties with spelling, various reading and writing problems and sometimes problems in psychomotor coordination. It is estimated that it affects, to a greater or lesser extent, 15% of the Spanish population. Although in most cases it is easy to correct with appropriate intervention, if not done early it could lead to very negative consequences such as school failure,symptoms of anxiety, depression, low self-esteem....

Dyslexia sIt is usually hereditary and scientific evidence has shown that there are certain brain areas affected in the processing of reading and language.It is.Dyslexia is not due to problemsIntelligence, hearing or sight. Most children with dyslexia can do well in school with the necessary help.Emotional support also plays an important role.

Although there is no cure for dyslexia, evaluation and interventionearly they give excellent results. There are cases in which, for years, dyslexia is not diagnosed and is not identified until adulthood, but it is never too late to seek help.

Dislexia en breve

Dyslexia is a learning disorder in reading, difficulty identifying words and learning to read. It is not related to intelligence.

  • Slow or choppy reading.
  • Difficulty deciphering unknown words.
  • Problems with spelling.
  • Difficulty understanding written texts.
  • Confusion with words that sound similar.
  • Difficulties with handwriting.
  • Genetic and hereditary factors.
  • Differences in how the brain processes language.
  • It is not caused by vision problems.
  • It affects between 5-10% of the world's population.
  • It can coexist with other learning disorders.
  • Many individuals with dyslexia have skills in other areas unrelated to reading.
  • Be patient and understanding.
  • Provide oral instructions when possible.
  • Use assistive technologies, such as text readers.
  • Foster a positive learning environment and support self-esteem.

Remember that each person with dyslexia is unique and may have different levels and types of difficulties. Empathy and support are essential.

A wide range of symptoms

Dyslexia is associated with notable problems in learning to read and write in relation to the class average. However, boys and girls with dyslexia may present one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Confusion of letters and syllables in writingand phonemes when talking.
  • Other learning problems such as dyscalculia (problems with mathematics) or dyspraxia (difficulties with psychomotor coordination).
  • Problems for theidentification of a specific sound.
  • Hearing difficulties.
  • Spatial orientation problems (confusion between left or right) andtemporal (difficulties locating oneself in time and recognizing the days of the week, months or hours).

The signs of dyslexia can be difficult to recognize before your child starts school, but some early signs can indicate a problem. Once your child reaches school age, your child's teacher may be the first to notice the problem. The level of severity varies, but the disorder usually manifests itself clearly when the child begins to learn to read.

Before School

Signs that a young child may have dyslexia include:

  • Takes time to start speaking.
  • Learn new words at a slow pace.
  • Has trouble forming words correctly, for example, reversing the sounds of words or confusing words that sound alike.
  • Has trouble remembering or naming letters, numbers, and colors.
  • Has difficulty learning nursery rhymes or playing rhyming games.

School age

Once your child is in school, the symptoms of dyslexia may become more visible, including:

  • A reading level well below that expected for their age
  • Trouble processing and understanding what you hear
  • Difficulty finding the correct word or coming up with an answer to a question
  • Trouble remembering sequences of things
  • Difficulty seeing (and occasionally hearing) similarities and differences between letters and words
  • Inability to pronounce an unknown word
  • Difficulty spelling
  • Needing a lot of time to complete tasks that involve reading or writing
  • Avoid activities that require reading

Teenagers and adults

The signs of dyslexia in adolescents and adults are similar to those in children. Some common symptoms of dyslexia in adolescents and adults include the following:

  • Difficulty reading, even reading aloud
  • Slow and laborious reading and writing
  • Spelling problems
  • Avoid activities that require reading
  • Poor pronunciation of names or words, or difficulty finding words
  • Needing a lot of time to complete tasks that involve reading or writing
  • Difficulty summarizing a story
  • Problems learning a foreign language
  • Difficulty understanding mathematical problems

Dyslexia is the result of individual differences in the parts of the brain that enable reading. It is usually hereditary and appears to be related to certain genes that affect the way the brain processes reading and language.

Risk factors

Having a family history of dyslexia or other reading or learning disabilities increases the risk of having dyslexia.


Dyslexia can cause different problems, including:

  • Learning problems. Because reading is a basic skill for most school subjects, a child with dyslexia is at a disadvantage in most classes and may have difficulty keeping up with his or her peers.
  • Social problems. If left untreated, dyslexia can cause low self-esteem, behavioral problems, anxiety, aggression, and withdrawal from friends, parents, and teachers.
  • Problems in adulthood. Children may be prevented from reaching their potential when they grow up if they cannot read or understand. This can have a long-term negative educational, social and economic impact.

    Children who have dyslexia are at greater risk of suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and vice versa. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder can cause difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and compulsive behavior, which can make dyslexia more difficult to treat.

The first thing that both teachers and parents must be very clear about is thatThe student with dyslexia does not have any type of intellectual delay. Therefore, if intervention is carried out appropriately and especially early, the boy or girl with dyslexia does not have to have problems passing the courses normally.

The keys to treatment for dyslexia They are, therefore:

  • Early detection of the disorder and adequate information to their parents and teachers.
  • Reeducation in reading and writingwith a specialized professional who will help you have the foundations and strategies that will help you keep up with the pace of learning.
  • Reinforcement of subjects that is most difficult for him (normally languages ​​and languages) during school hours and, if necessary, as an extra activity.

Educational techniques

Dyslexia is treated with specific educational approaches and techniques, and it is recommended that intervention begin as early as possible. Assessments of your child's reading skills, other academic skills, and mental health will help teachers develop an individual instructional program.

Teachers can use techniques that involve hearing, vision, and touch to improve reading skills. Helping a child use multiple senses to learn (for example, listening to a recorded lesson and tracing with a finger the shape of the letters used and the words spoken) can help him or her process information.

Treatment focuses on helping your child achieve the following:

  • Learn to recognize the shorter sounds that make up words (phonemes)
  • Understand that letters and letter strings represent these sounds and words (phonics)
  • Understand what you read (comprehension)
  • Read aloud to develop reading accuracy, speed, and expression (fluency)
  • Accumulate a vocabulary composed of recognized and understood words

If available, tutoring sessions with a reading specialist can be helpful for many children with dyslexia. If your child has a severe reading disability, he or she may need tutoring more frequently, and progress may be slower.

Individualized educational plan

In the United States, schools are legally required to take steps to help children diagnosed with dyslexia with their learning problems. Talk to your child's teacher to set up a meeting to create a structured, written plan that addresses your child's needs and how the school will help him or her succeed. This is known as an individualized education program (IEP).

Early treatment

Children with dyslexia who receive help in kindergarten or first grade often improve their reading skills enough to be successful in elementary and middle school.

Children who do not receive help until the upper grades may have more difficulty learning the skills necessary to read well. They are likely to fall behind in academic performance and never catch up. A child with severe dyslexia may not be able to read easily. However, you can learn skills that improve reading and develop strategies to improve school performance and quality of life.

What can parents do

You have a fundamental role in helping your child achieve success. To do this, adopt the following measures:

  • Address the problem early. If you suspect your child has dyslexia, talk to your child's healthcare provider. Early intervention can improve success.
  • Read aloud with your child. It's best if you start when your child is still young, although it's never too late to start. Getting babies to see books as a toy encourages fun, learning, and social interaction with their caregivers. Read stories to your child. Also, try listening to books on tape with your child. When your child is old enough, have him listen to the stories and then read them together.
  • Work with your child's school. Talk to teachers about how school will help you succeed. You are your child's best advocate.
  • Encourage reading. Reserve some of your time to read with your child. To improve reading skills, a child must read. Encourage your child to read to continue developing their skills.Have your child read aloud to youchoosing books that you feel comfortable with.
  • Set an example for reading. Designate an hour each day to read something while your child also reads; This sets an example and supports your child. Teach your child that reading can be fun too.

What can adults with dyslexia do

Success in the workplace can be difficult for adults who have dyslexia. These are some measures that can help you achieve your goals:

  • Regardless of your age, try to get evaluated and given help with reading and writing.
  • Ask about additional training opportunities and reasonable accommodations from your company.

Academic problems do not necessarily mean that a person with dyslexia cannot succeed. With the right resources, capable dyslexic students can make enormous progress. Many people with dyslexia are creative and bright, and may be talented in math, science, or art. Some even have successful careers in writing.

Coping and support strategies

Emotional support and opportunities to achieve in activities other than reading are important for children with dyslexia. If your child has dyslexia, do the following:

  • Provide support. Problems learning to read can affect your child's self-esteem. Be sure to express love and support. Encourage your child by praising his talents and strengths. Talk to school staff so they can provide the services and support your child needs to be successful.
  • Talk to your son. Explain to your child what dyslexia is and that it is not a personal failure. Understanding this can help your child better cope with having learning problems.
  • Take steps to help your child learn at home. Give your child a clean, quiet and organized space where they can study and set a time for it. Also, make sure your child gets enough rest and eats a regular, healthy diet.
  • Limit screen time. Limit daily screen time and use the extra time to practice reading.
  • Stay in touch with your child's teachers. Talk to teachers frequently to make sure your child can keep up. If necessary, make sure your child has extra time for tests that require reading. Ask the teacher if recording the day's lessons to listen to later might be helpful for your child.
  • Join a support group. This can help you stay in touch with parents of children who have similar learning problems. Support groups can provide helpful information and emotional support. Ask your child's healthcare provider or reading specialist if there are any support groups in your area.